Section4:'Self-regulatory focus theory'and leadership

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Part A :

Today, I want to talk about self regulatory focus theory and how the actions of leaders can affect the way followers approach different situations.

今天,我想谈谈自我调节定向理论以及领导人的行为是如何会影响到下属们面对不同情形时的方法的。

Self-regulatory focus theory is a theory developed by Tori Higgins.

自我调节定向理论是由Tori Higgins研发出来的。

He says that a person's focus at any given time is to either approach pleasure or avoid pain.

他说,一个人的注意力,在任何给定的时间段内是或者追求快乐或者避免疼痛。

These are two basic motivations that each and every one of us has, and they cause us to have different kinds of goals.

这是我们每个人都有两个基本的动机,他们使我们有各种不同的目标。

Promotion goals in different life situations emphasise achievement.

促进目标在不同的生活情形下会强调出成就。

Prevention goals are oriented towards the avoidance of punishment.

预防目标是面向避免惩罚。

In a specific situation, our thoughts might focus more on promotion goals or more on prevention goals.

在一个特定的情况下,我们的想法可能会更多地关注促进目标或者更多的预防目标。

The theory suggests that two factors affect which goals we are focusing on.

这一理论说明出影响我们所关注的目标的两个因素。

First, there is a chronic factor.

首先,有一个长期的因素。

This factor is connected to a person's personality and says that each person has a basic tendency to either focus more on promotion goals or focus more on prevention goals as part of his or her personality.

这一因素与一个人的性格相关,每个人都有一个基本的趋势是更加注重促进目标还是更加注重预防目标作为自己个性的一部分。

Second, there is a situational factor which means that the context we are in can make us more likely to focus on one set of goals or the other.

其次,有个情境因素意味着我们正处在的环境可以让我们更容易专注于一个目标或这是另一个。

For example, we are more likely to be thinking about pleasure and to have promotion goals when we are spending time with a friend.

例如,我们更可能去思考乐趣和促进目标,当我们与朋友相处时。

In contrast, if we are working on an important project for our boss, we are more likely to try to avoid making mistakes and therefore have more prevention goals in our mind.

相反,如果我们正在和我们的老板研究一个重要的项目,我们更可能去尝试避免犯错误,因此在我们的脑海中也就有更多的预防目标。

Research has shown that the goals we are focusing on at a given time affect the way we think.

研究表明,我们在一个特定的时间所关注的目标会影响我们思考的方式。

For example, when focusing on promotion goals, people consider their ideal self, their aspirations and gains.

例如,当我们关注促进目标时,人们会考虑他们的理想自我,自己的愿望和利益。

They don't think about what they can lose, so they think in a happier mode.

他们不认为他们会失去什么,所以他们在以一个幸福的模式思考。

They feel more inspired to change.

他们会感觉更受鼓舞去做些改变。

When people are focusing on prevention goals, they think about their "ought" self.

当人们专注于预防目标的时候,他们就想到了自己的“应该成为的”自我。

What are they supposed to be?

他们应该做什么?

What are people expecting from them?

人们又从他们身上在期待什么?

They consider their obligations to others.

他们认为对他人是有义务的。

As a result, they experience more anxiety and try to avoid situations where they could lose.

结果,他们经历了更多的焦虑,并试图避免他们可能会失去的情况

Part B :

Now that I have talked about the two focuses and how they affect people, I want to look at the idea that the way leaders behave, or their style of leading, can affect the focus that followers adopt in a specific situation.

现在,我已经谈到了两个重点以及它们对人们的影响,我想看看这个想法,领导们的行为,或他们领导的风格,会在一个特定的情况下使下属们受到这个定向的影响。

In talking about leadership, we often mention transformational leaders and transactional leaders.

在谈到领导能力时,我们经常提到变革型领导和事务型领导。

Transformational leaders, when interacting with their followers, focus on their development.

变革型领导,与他们的下属们互动时,会关注他们的发展。

In their words and actions transformational leaders highlight change.

在他们的话语和行动中,变革型领导会强调变化。

Their speech is passionate and conveys a definitive vision.

他们的演讲充满激情并传达了一个明确的前景。

All of these things can encourage followers to think about what could be.

所有这些东西都可以鼓励下属们去思考可以成为什么。

In other words, they inspire a promotion focus in their followers.

换句话说,他们激发了他们的下属的的促进定向。

In contrast, transactional leaders focus on developing clear structures that tell their followers exactly what is expected of them.

相反的,事务型领导注重发展清晰的结构,告诉他们的下属自己对他们的期望是什么。

While they do explain the rewards people will get for following orders, they emphasise more how a follower will be punished or that a follower won't get rewarded if his or her behaviour doesn't change.

当他们向下属们解释将会得到的接下来的指令会对应的奖励时,他们强调更多的是下属将被惩罚,或者如果他或她的行为不改变将不会得到奖励。

In short, they emphasise the consequences of making a mistake.

简而言之,他们强调犯错误的后果。

This emphasis will clearly lead followers to focus on avoiding punishment and problems.

这一重点将很明显地引导下属们关注避免惩罚和问题。

This is clearly a prevention focus.

这显然是一个预防定向。

In conclusion, it is important to understand that one focus is not necessarily better than the other one.

总之,重要的是要了解一个定向并不一定比另一个更好。

For a designer who works in a field where a lot of innovation is needed, a Q40 promotion focus is probably better.

对于一个设计师来说,他的作品在一个领域里是否需要很多的创新,促进定向可能是更好的。

In contrast, a prevention focus which causes people to work more cautiously and produce higher quality work might be very appropriate for a job like a surgeon, for example.

相比之下,一个会导致人们工作更谨慎以及出品更高质量的工作的预防定向,可能是非常适合像是外科医生这种工作的。

The main point of the research, though, is that the actions of leaders can greatly influence whether people approach a situation with more of a promotion focus or more of a prevention focus.

然而研究的主要观点是,领导者的行为可以在很大程度上影响人们是否接近一种促进定向或是预防定向的局面。

Question 31 - 35

Complete the table below:

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

                    'Self-regulatory focus theory' and leadership


Self-regulatory focus theory


People's focus is to approach pleasure or avoid pain

Promotion goals focus on

Prevention goals emphasise avoiding punishment


Factors that affect people's focus


The Chronic Factor

  • comes from one's  The  Factor

  • we are more likely to focus on promotion goals when with a 

  • we are more likely to focus on prevention goals with our boss


How people's focus affects them


Promotion Focus:People think about an ideal version of themselves,their  and their gains.

Prevention Focus:People think about their'ought'self and their obligations


显示答案 正确答案:

31. achievement/achievements|achievement|achievements|ACHIEVEMENT|ACHIEVEMENTS   

32. personality/character|personality|character|PERSONALITY|CHARACTER   

33. Situational|SITUATIONAL   

34. friend|FRIEND   

35. aspirations/ambitions|aspirations|ambitions|ASPIRATIONS|AMBITIONS   

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