AThe Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1895. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat screen.
A 在100多年前，即1895年12月8日，Lumière兄弟在法国巴黎的Boulevard des Capueines大道14号面向100名付费观众打开了他们的电影放映机。在那些既感吃惊又兴奋的观众面前，图片栩栩如生地在平面屏幕上移过。
BSo ordinary and routine has this become to us that it takes a determined leap of the imagination to grasp the impact of those first moving images. But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made film the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.
COne of the Lumière Brothers' earliest films was a 30-second piece which showed a section of a railway platform flooded with sunshine. A train appears and heads straight for the camera. And that is all that happens. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists, described the film as a 'work of genius'. 'As the train approached,' wrote Tarkovsky, 'panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture. Pictures were still, only reality moved; this must, therefore, be reality. In their confusion, they feared that a real train was about to crush them.'
C Lumière兄弟最早的作品之一是一部半分钟长的影片，该影片展示了一处充满阳光的车站月台。火车出现，朝着摄像机方向驶来，这就是影片的全部。然而俄罗斯导演Andrei Tarkovsky这位最伟大的电影艺术家之一却称赞这部影片是“天才之作”。他写道：“火车驶来，戏院中的恐慌气氛亦随之而来。人们纷纷跳离座位，四处逃窜。这一刻标志着电影艺术的诞生。惊慌的观众无法接受的是，他们看到的仅仅是一幅画面。而画面应该是静止的，唯有现实可以移动。所以火车的出现必定是真的。让其困惑的是．他们害怕真的火车会驶过来撞死自己。”
DEarly cinema audiences often experienced the same contusion. In time, the idea of film became familiar, the magic was accepted - but it never stopped being magic. Film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audiences and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. But in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.
EOne effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people travelled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived.Overwhelmingly, the lives recorded - at least in film fiction - have been American. From the earliest days of the industry, Hollywood has dominated the world film market.American imagery - the cars, the cities, the cowboys - became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.
FAnd, thanks to film, future generations will know the 20th century more intimately than any other period. We can only imagine what life was like in the 14th century or in classical Greece. But the life of the modern world has been recorded on film in massive, encyclopaedic detail. We shall be known better than any preceding generations.
GThe 'star' was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that, inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than we do ourselves. The star as magnified human self is one of cinema's most strange and enduring legacies.
HCinema has also given a new lease of life to the idea of the story. When the Lumière Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground attraction.
ICinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television - as a strange, noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories - early producers doubted the ability of audiences to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in 1912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled upon the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.
JAnd it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again - that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer.
NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer.
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.
6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.
7 The Lumière Brothers' film about the train was one of the greatest films ever made.
8 Cinema presents a biased view of other countries.
9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.