Test 07-Passage 2:The Intersection of Health Sciences and Geography 纠错
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A While many diseases that affect humans have been eradicated due to improvements in vaccinations and the availability of healthcare, there are still areas around the world where certain health issues are more prevalent. In a world that is far more globalised than ever before, people come into contact with one another through travel and living closer and closer to each other. As a result, super-viruses and other infections resistant to antibiotics are becoming more and more common.

A 虽然疫苗技术的进步和医疗服务使得很多影响人类的疾病已经被消除,全球仍有一些地区盛行某种健康隐患。在如今这个全球化程度远超以往的时代,人们通过交通和比邻而居互相有了接触。因此,超级细菌和其他对抗生素有抵抗力的感染也变得越来越普遍。

B Geography can often play a very large role in the health concerns of certain populations. For instance, depending on where you live, you will not have the same health concerns as someone who lives in a different geographical region. Perhaps one of the most obvious examples of this idea is malaria-prone areas, which are usually tropical regions that foster a warm and damp environment in which the mosquitos that can give people this disease can grow. Malaria is much less of a problem in high-altitude deserts, for instance.

B 地理学在特定人口的健康问题上通常能发挥重要的作用。例如,根据你居住的地点,你不会跟住在不同地理区域的人拥有同样的健康问题。或许最明显的此类例子之一就是疟患地区,这些地区通常在热带,拥有溫暖潮湿的环境,能传染这种疾病的蚊子容易生存其中。例如,疟疾在高纬度沙漠地区就不大成问题。

C In some countries, geographical factors influence the health and well-being of the population in very obvious ways. In many large cities, the wind is not strong enough to clear the air of the massive amounts of smog and pollution that cause asthma, lung problems, eyesight issues and more in the people who live there. Part of the problem is, of course, the massive number of cars being driven, in addition to factories that run on coal power. The rapid industrialisation of some countries in recent years has also led to the cutting down of forests to allow for the expansion of big cities, which makes it even harder to fight the pollution with the fresh air that is Produced by plants.

C 在某些国家,地理因素影响人口健康和福祉的方式就很明显。在很多大城市,风力不够强,无法吹走大量的雾霾和污染,导致住在那里的人们患哮喘、肺病、视力差及其他问题。当然,部分原因也归咎于上路的车太多,以及燃煤的工厂。近年来某些国家的快速工业化也导致了森林欲伐以扩张城市,这也更难用植物产生的新鲜空气来对抗污染。

D It is in situations like these that the field of health geography comes into its own. It is an increasingly important area of study in a world where diseases like polio are re-emerging, respiratory diseases continue to spread, and malaria-prone areas are still fighting to find a better cure. Health geography is the combination of, on the one hand, knowledge regarding geography and methods used to analyse and interpret geographical information, and on the other, the study of health, diseases and healthcare practices around the world. The aim of this hybrid science is to create solutions for common geography-based health problems. While people will always be prone to illness, the study of how geography affects our health could lead to the eradication of certain illnesses, and the prevention of others in the future. By understanding why and how we get sick, we can change the way we treat illness and disease specific to certain geographical locations.

D 健康地理学正是在这种情形之下获得了人们的认可。在如今像脊髓灰质炎重现、呼吸疾病蔓延、疟患地区仍在挣扎求生的时代,它成了一个越来越重要的研究领域。健康地理学一方面结合了地理学知识和分析解读地理知识的方法,另一方面结合了全球对健康、疾病和医疗实践的研究。这一混合型科学的目标在于为常见的基于地理因素的健康问题开创解决之道。虽然人们总是易于生病,对地理如何影响疾病的研究能够帮助将来消除某些疾病,以及预防另一些疾病。通过研究我们生病的原因和过程,我们可以改变在某些特定地理区域我们治疗疾病的方式。

E The geography of disease and ill health analyses the frequency with which certain diseases appear in different parts of the world, and overlays the data with the geography of the region, to see if there could be a correlation between the two. Health geographers also study factors that could make certain individuals or a population more likely to be taken ill with a specific health concern or disease, as compared with the population of another area. Health geographers in this field are usually trained as healthcare workers, and have an understanding of basic epidemiology as it relates to the spread of diseases among the population.

E 疾病地理学分析世界上某些地区出现某种疾病的频次,加上该地的地理数据,来研究两者之间是否有关联。健康地理学家还会研究使得某些个体或人群更容易感染某种疾病的因素,跟其他地区的人口做比较。该领域的健康地理学家通常接受医疗工作者方面的培训,并有基础传染病学方面的知识,因为它跟人群中的疾病传播有关。

F Researchers study the interactions between humans and their environment that could lead to illness (such as asthma in places with high levels of pollution) and work to create a clear way of categorising illnesses, diseases and epidemics into local and global scales. Health geographers can map the spread of illnesses and attempt to identify the reasons behind an increase or decrease in illnesses, as they work to find a way to halt the further spread or re-emergence of diseases in vulnerable populations.

F 研究人员研究人与致病环境(如高污染地区的哮喘)之间的互相作用,并努力找出一种方式把疾病和传染病分为区域性的和全球性的。健康地理学家可以描绘出疾病的传播路径,并试图找出疾病隐现的原因,同时努力找到一种方式来防止某些易感地区的疾病继续蔓延或重现。

G The second subcategory of health geography is the geography of healthcare provision. This group studies the availability (or lack thereof) of healthcare resources to individuals and populations around the world. In both developed and developing nations there is often a very large discrepancy between the options available to people in different social classes, income brackets, and levels of education. Individuals working in the area of the geography of healthcare provision attempt to assess the levels of healthcare in the area (for instance, it may be very difficult for people to get medical attention because there is a mountain between their village and the nearest hospital). These researchers are on the frontline of making recommendations regarding policy to international organisations, local government bodies and others.

G 健康地理学的第二个次级分类是医疗地理学。这一类人研究全球范围内医疗资源对个人或群体的支持(或者缺乏)。在发达国家和不发达国家,不同社会阶层、收入群体和教育程度的人可获取的资源通常存在着很大的差异。在这一领域研究的人试图去评估某一地区的医疗水平(例如.人们可能很难获得医疗关怀,因为他们的村庄和最近的医院之间隔着一座山)。这些研究人员工作在一线,是最适合向国际组织、当地政府机构和其他机构提供政策建议的。

H The field of health geography is often overlooked, but it constitutes a huge area of need in the fields of geography and healthcare. If we can understand how geography affects our health no matter where in the world we are located, we can better treat disease, prevent illness, and keep people safe and well.

H 健康地理学领域经常被忽视,但它包括了地理学和健康研究领域的一个巨大的需求空间。如果我们能够认识到在世界各地生活地理学是如何影响我们健康的,我们就可以更好地治疗疾病、预防疾病,守护人们的安全和健康。

Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

14.an acceptance that not all diseases can be totally eliminated
15.examples of physical conditions caused by human behaviour
16.a reference to classifying diseases on the basis of how far they extend geographically
17.reasons why the level of access to healthcare can vary within a country
18.a description of health geography as a mixture of different academic fields
19.a description of the type of area where a particular illness is rare
正确答案: 14.D   15.C   16.F   17.G   18.D   19.B  







The Intersection of Health Sciences and Geography