Test 02-Passage 1:The Impact of Hearing Loss on Young Children 纠错
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AHearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole. The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.

A 儿童的听觉障碍和其他听觉功能的缺陷会对他们的语言和交流能力的发展产生重大影响,导致他们在学校的学习能力受到不利影响。这对个人甚至全人类部可能产生巨大后果。新西兰卫生部从一向进行了20多年的研究中发现该国6%-10%的孩子有听觉障碍。

BA preliminary study in New Zealand has shown that classroom noise presents a major concern for teachers and pupils. Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air-conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher's voice. Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit. Noise in classrooms can only exacerbate their difficulty in comprehending and processing verbal communication with other children and instructions from the teacher.

B 新西兰的—项初步研究显示,教室噪音是老师和学生关注的—个大同题。现代教学实践、教室中课桌的布局、差的音响效果以及空调通风口产生的噪音都使许多孩子无法听清师的声音。教育研究者Nelson和Soil也表明,现代学习方式中多种患想与方法协作交互获取信息与个人人获取信息同等重要。而这一切都增加了活动量与噪音级别,这对患有听觉功能障碍的该子有潜在的严重的影响。教室噪音只会加剧他们和其他孩子进行语言沟通时的难度,并且使他们无法很好地理解教师的指示。

CChildren with auditory function deficit are potentially failing to learn to their maximum potential because of noise levels generated in classrooms. The effects of noise on the ability of children to learn effectively in typical classroom environments are now the subject of increasing concern. The International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (l-INCE), on the advice of the World Health Organization, has established an international working party, which includes New Zealand, to evaluate noise and reverberation control for school rooms.

C 教室噪音使患有听觉缺陷的孩子在学习中不能发挥他们的最大潜能。在典型的课堂环境中,噪音对孩子们高效学习能力的影响越来越受到人们的关注。在世界卫生组织的建议下,国际噪声控制工程学会(I-INCE)成立了—个国际工作小组来评估学校教室噪音与回声控制,新西兰也是小组成虽之一。

DWhile the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit disorders (ADD/ADHD).

D 虽然救室噪音不只会给残疾孩子带来不利影响,但是对于那些在语言沟通方面有障碍的孩子们显然是更大的受害者。听觉功能缺陷包括听觉障碍、自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)和注意力缺陷障碍(ADD/ADHD,也称“注意力缺乏症”)。

EAutism is considered a neurological and genetic life-long disorder that causes discrepancies in the way information is processed. This disorder is characterised by interlinking problems with social imagination, social communication and social interaction. According to Janzen, this affects the ability to understand and relate in typical ways to people, understand events and objects in the environment, and understand or respond to sensory stimuli. Autism does not allow learning or thinking in the same ways as in children who are developing normally. Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated by machinery painful and distressing. This is difficult to scientifically quantify as such extra-sensory stimuli vary greatly from one autistic individual to another. But a child who finds any type of noise in their classroom or learning space intrusive is likely to be adversely affected in their ability to process information.

E 自闭症被认为是一种由神经系统与遗产基因紊乱引起的终生疾病,思者在处理信息时会产生偏差。这种疾病的持点是社会想象力、杜会交往与社会互动之间出现了问题。根据Janzen的说法,这种疾病影响了人们的多种能力:比如以正常方式理解并与他人相处的能力、理解环境中事与物的能力以及理解或回应感官刺激的能力。自闭症患者不能像正常发展的孩子那样学习或思考。自闭症谱系障碍往往使患者在理解口头信息与语言处理方面遇到较大的困难。患者也往往会觉得人潮喧闹的噪音以及机器发出的声音让自己感到痛苦和压抑。这很难进行科学量化,因为这种超感官刺激因患者的不同而有很大的差异。但是当—个孩子觉得在教室里或学习的地方中的任何声音都让自己闹心的的话,那么他处理信息的能力很可能也会受到负面的影响。

FThe attention deficit disorders are indicative of neurological and genetic disorders and are characterised by difficulties with sustaining attention, effort and persistence, organisation skills and disinhibition. Children experiencing these disorders find it difficult to screen out unimportant information, and focus on everything in the environment rather than attending to a single activity. Background noise in the classroom becomes a major distraction, which can affect their ability to concentrate.

F 注意力缺乏症表现为神经与基因的混乱,它的特点是患者很难持续关注某事、很难长时间努力与坚持、缺乏组织能力并且无法抑制解除。患有注意力缺乏症的孩子很难筛选出不重要的信息,他们会关注所处环境中所有事物而非仅仅—个活动。教室里的背景噪音成为分散孩子们注意力的—个主要原因。

GChildren experiencing an auditory function deficit can often find speech and communication very difficult to isolate and process when set against high levels of background noise. These levels come from outside activities that penetrate the classroom structure, from teaching activities, and other noise generated inside, which can be exacerbated by room reverberation. Strategies are needed to obtain the optimum classroom construction and perhaps a change in classroom culture and methods of teaching. In particular, the effects of noisy classrooms and activities on those experiencing disabilities in the form of auditory function deficit need thorough investigation. It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education system with 'invisible' disabilities. Their needs are less likely to be met than those of children with known disabilities.

G 患有听觉功能障碍的孩子在面对较高级别的背景噪音时,经常很难分辨与处理言语和交流。这些噪音有的是传入教室中的室外活动的声音,也有的是教学活动的声音以及教室内产生的其他噪音,而且教室中的反射使这些噪音增大。因此,需要采取措施来获得最佳的课堂建设,也许还需要改空课堂文化与教学方法,特别要彻底检查吵闹的课堂与活动给患有听觉功能障碍的孩子带来的影响。也许有很多未确诊的孩子带着“无形“的残疾接受教育,他们的需求不想已确诊的孩子的需求那样容易被人察觉。

HThe New Zealand Government has developed a New Zealand Disability Strategy and has embarked on a wide-ranging consultation process. The strategy recognises that people experiencing disability face significant barriers in achieving a full quality of life in areas such as attitude, education, employment and access to services. Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to Provide the Best Education for Disabled People' by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing local school. For a successful education, the learning environment is vitally significant, so any effort to improve this is likely to be of great benefit to all children, but especially to those with auditory function disabilities.

H 新西兰政府已经制定出一项“新西兰残疾人事业发展战略”,并开始进入广泛咨询意见的阶段。该战略认同残疾人在世俗观念、教育机会、就业机会以及所享服务方面,均很难享有高质量的生活。“新西兰残疾人事业发展战略”的第三个目标是通过改善教育,“为残疾人提供最好的教育”,这样所有的孩子,青年学生以及成年学者将会在他们当地已有的学校里享有平等的学习和发展机会。对于成功的教育而言,学习环境是非常重要的。因此,任何改善学习环境的努力都会造福所有孩子,尤其是那些环游听觉功能障碍的孩子们。

IA number of countries are already in the process of formulating their own standards for the control and reduction of classroom noise. New Zealand will probably follow their example. The literature to date on noise in school rooms appears to focus on the effects on schoolchildren in general, their teachers and the hearing impaired. Only limited attention appears to have been given to those students experiencing the other disabilities involving auditory function deficit. It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.

I 一些国家已经开始制定自己的标准来控制与减少教室噪音,新西兰很可能会以此为例(来制定自己的标准)。迄今为止,文献中关于学校教室噪音的描述一般集中于噪音对学生、教师以及听觉缺陷都的影响上,而很少注意到噪音对患有其他疾病的学生的影响,包括对环游听觉功能障碍的学生的影响。今后在制定和颁布国际标准时,必须把这些孩子的需求考虑进去。

Reading Passage 1 has nine sections, A-l.

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-l in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

1.an account of a national policy initiative
2.a description of a global team effort
3.a hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise
4.a demand for suitable worldwide regulations
5.a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others
6.the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems Questions
正确答案: 1.H   2.C   3.B   4.I   5.D   6.A  







The Impact of Hearing Loss on Young Children