Section4:Corporate Crime

纠错
查看听力原文 关闭显示原文
显示译文

Part A :

So far, in these lectures, we've been looking at crimes like robbery and murder, both from historical viewpoint and also in contemporary society.

到目前为止,在这些讲座中,我们一直在着眼于抢劫和谋杀等犯罪——都是从历史的观点,并在当代社会中——

And we've seen that the preoccupation of Western society with crime and with lawlessness is part of a long and continuous tradition, rather than something which is new and unique to modern society.

我们已经看到,对西方社会的犯罪与违法是一个长期的、连续的传统的一部分,而不是现代的社会的一些新的、独特的东西。

But over the past 70 years or so, there has been a massive increase in one type of crime, which is what's known as corporate crime.

但在过去的七十年里,有一种犯罪的大规模增加,这就是被称为企业犯罪。企业犯罪,顾名思义,和企业有联系,和商业机构有联系。它包括在公司内部的个人或团体的违法行为,但重要的是,这些行为通常是按照公司的目标,他们是为公司而不是个人。它被定义为‘为了企业组织而实施的犯罪’-公司‘不反对’这样的行为。但在过去的七十年里,有一种犯罪的大规模增加,这就是被称为企业犯罪。

Corporate crime is crime which, as the name suggests, is connected with companies, with business organizations.

企业犯罪,顾名思义,和企业有联系,和商业机构有联系。

It includes illegal acts of either individuals or a group within the company.

它包括在公司内部的个人或团体的违法行为,

But what is important is that these acts normally in accordance with the goals of the company.

但重要的是,这些行为通常是按照公司的目标,

They're for the good of the company rather than the individual.

他们是为公司而不是个人。

It's been defined as, quote, crime which is committed for the corporate organization - the company - not against it, unquote.

它被定义为‘为了企业组织而实施的犯罪’-公司‘不反对’这样的行为。

So crimes like theft by employees - things like... err... embezzlement or fraud against one's actual employer are excluded according to this definition.

所以犯罪如员工盗窃、如贪污或诈骗的,有悖于雇佣者的行为,在这个定义下是被排除的。

The employees maybe involved but they're acting in the first place for the company.

员工可能被涉及盗,但他们行动是把公司放在第一位。

They may not even realize they're commit a crime or they may realize but they feel it's excusable because it's policy, or because otherwise they may lose their jobs.

他们可能甚至没有意识到他们是在犯罪.或他们可能意识到,但他们觉得这是可以原谅的,因为它的政策,或因为否则他们可能会失去他们的工作。

So here, really, we're talking about the links between power and crime.

所以,在这里,真的,我们讨论的是权力与犯罪之间的联系。

Now, this is one area that much less is generally known about than conventional or traditional crime.

现在,这是一个比传统的或传统的犯罪更不了解的领域之一。

It has been relatively ignored by the mass media.

它一直被媒体忽

For example, it tends to be under-reported in comparison with conventional crime in news broadcasts, and in crime serials and films and so on.

例如,与传统犯罪相比,它往往是缺乏新闻广播报道的,并在犯罪连续剧和电影等中,

They very rarely deal with corporate crime.

也很少涉及到公司犯罪。

And it also tends to be ignored in academic circles - there's been far more research on conventional crime and far more data is available.

它也往往被学术界忽视-有更多的研究是着眼于传统犯罪,并且有更多的可利用的数据。

There are several reasons for this lack of interest in corporate crime, compared with other types of crime.

与其他类型的犯罪相比,这种对企业犯罪的兴趣的缺失,有几个原因。

It's often very complex, whereas conventional crime it's usually possible to follow what's going on without specialist knowledge.

它往往是非常复杂的,而对于传统的犯罪,通常是可以在没有专业知识的情况下跟踪下去的。

As well as this, whereas conventional crime usually has a lot of human interest, corporate crime often has much less.

以及这一点,传统的犯罪通常有很多人的利益,企业犯罪往往有少得多。

The third reason, and possibly the most significant one, is that very often that victims are unaware.

原因第三,可能是最重要的一个,是很经常的受害者没有意识到自己是受害者——

They think their misfortune is an accident, or that is the fault of no one in particular.

他们认为他们的不幸是事故或者不是任何人的错。

They're unaware that they've been victims of a crime.

他们没有意识到他们是犯罪的受害者。

So, when we look at the effects of corporate crime we may find it's very difficult to assess the costs.

所以,当我们看到企业犯罪的影响,我们可能会发现很难评估成本。

But these costs can be very considerable in both their economic and social aspects.

但这些成本在经济和社会方面都是非常可观的。

Part B :

Let's look at the economic costs first.

让我们先看看经济成本。

For example, if a company is producing fruit juice and it dilutes its product so that it's just a little below the concentration it should be, many millions of people may be paying a small amount extra for their carton of orange juice.

例如,如果一个公司是生产果汁,它稀释了其产品,这只是比通常的浓度低一点点,数百万的人可能支付少量的额外钱去买果汁。

Now small amounts like this may seem insignificant for individual customers - too small to worry about - but for the company this deception might result in massive illegal profit.

现在的小数额,这可能对于个别客户似乎微不足道的——太小了,不用担心——但对公司,这种欺骗可能会导致大量的非法利润。

However, all studies of corporate crime agree that the individuals are in fact deprived of far more money by such crime than they are by conventional crime like robbery and theft.

然而,所有的企业犯罪研究都认为,不像抢劫和盗窃一样的传统犯罪,个人实际上被剥夺了更多的金钱。

In addition to this, we have to consider the social costs of corporate crime and these are again very difficult to assess, but they're considerable.

除了这一点,我们必须考虑企业犯罪的社会成本,这些都是很难评估,但他们是相当大的。

They're important because they can undermine the faith of the public in the business world and also, more importantly, because the main group of people they affect are.

他们之所以重要,是因为他们可以破坏公众对商业世界的信心,更重要的是,因为他们所影响的主要群体,

In fact, not the richer sections of society but the poorer - so here companies are robbing the poor to benefit the rich.

其实不是社会的富裕部分,而是贫穷的部分——所以这里的公司正在掠夺穷人以造福富人。

There're two more points to do with corporate crime that I'd like to illustrate with reference to a specific event which occurred several years ago.

我想说明的是,在几年前发生的一项事件,有2个以上的点与企业犯罪有关

This was an explosion of a large oil tanker which caused the loss of more than fifty lives of the crew.

这是一艘大型油轮爆炸造成的,损失超过五十人的船员。

It was an explosion which never should have happened and a subsequent inquiry laid the blame not on anyone who had actually been on the tanker at the time, but on the owners of the tanker.

是一次爆炸,这是不应该发生的,并且随后的调查奠定了责任,责任不在于当时在游轮上的人,而在于油轮的主人。

They had deliberately decided not to carry out necessary repair work on the tanker as it was due to be sold, and it was this lack of repair work which was directly responsible for the explosion.

他们故意决定不进行必要的维修工作,因为它是由于被出售的油轮,正是这种缺乏维修工作直接引起的爆炸。

Now this illustrates two points to do with corporate crime.

现在,这说明了两点与企业犯罪有关。

First of all, that it does not have to be intentional.

首先,它不必是故意的。

The owners of the tanker certainly did not intend it to explode.

油轮的主人肯定没有打算爆炸。

But very serious consequences can result from people or organizations not considering the possible results of their actions seriously enough.

但非常严重的后果可能由人或组织不考虑他们的行动可能的严重结果造成。

The main crime here was indifference to the human results rather than actual intention to harm anyone, but that didn't make the results any less tragic.

这里的主要罪行是对人类的结果漠不关心,而不是故意伤害任何人,但这并没有使结果减轻。

And this leads me to my second point - that corporate crime can have very severe consequences.

这就到了我第二个观点,企业犯罪有非常严重的后果。

It's not just a matter of companies making bigger profits than they should do, but of events which may affect the lives of innocent people, and yet very often companies, because they say they didn't intend to harm anyone, can avoid taking responsibility for the results of their actions.

这不仅仅是一个企业的获得了超出他们应得的利润,也因为可能影响无辜人民的生活,但通常,公司可以避免对他们的行动的结果负责,因为他们说,他们不打算伤害任何人。

And that has been a very dangerous loophole in the law.

在法律上,这是一个非常危险的漏洞。

A further example of corporate crime was...

企业犯罪的进一步的例子是…(淡出)

Question 31 - 32

Choose the correct letter A, B or C

31 Corporate crime is generally committed

aagainst individuals

bby groups.

cfor companies.

显示答案 正确答案: C

32 Corporate crime does NOT include

aemployees stealing from their company.

bunintentional crime by employees.

cfraud resulting from company policy.

显示答案 正确答案: A

Question 33 - 36

Complete the table below:

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Corporate crime has been ignored by:

a) the e.g. films.

b) .

Reasons:

a) often more complex and needing .

b) less human interest than conventional crime.

c) victims often .

显示答案 正确答案:

33. mass media/media|media|mass media|MASS MEDIA|MEDIA   

34. academic circles/academics/researchers|academic circles|academics|researchers|ACADEMIC CIRCLES|ACADEMICS|RESEARCHERS   

35. specialist knowledge/specialised knowledge|specialist knowledge|specialised knowledge|SPECIALIST KNOWLEDGE|SPECIALISED KNOWLEDGE   

36. unaware|UNAWARE   

考生贡献解析

点击查看题目解析

暂无解析
暂无解析
暂无解析
暂无解析
暂无解析
暂无解析
暂无解析
暂无解析
暂无解析
保存解析
取消
保存成功!

题目讨论

如果对题目有疑问,欢迎来提出你的问题,热心的小伙伴会帮你解答。

如何高效搞定此篇文章?

Corporate Crime

马上练习