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1 .Hi, Joanna, good to meet you.
2 .Now, before we discuss your new research project, I'd like to hear something about the psychology study you did last year for your Master's degree.
3 .So how did you choose your subjects for that?
1 .Well, I had six subjects, all professional musicians, and all female.
2 .Three were violinists and there was also a cello player and a pianist and a flute player.
3 .They were all very highly regarded in the music world and they'd done quite extensive tours in different continent,
4 .and quite a few had won prizes and competitions as well.
1 .And they were quite young, weren't they?
1 .Yes, between 25 and 29 - the mean was 27.8.
2 .I wasn't specifically looking for artists who'd produced recordings,
3 .but this is something that's just taken for granted these days, and they all had.
1 .Right. Now you collected your data through telephone interviews, didn't you?
1 .Yes. I realised if I was going to interview leading musicians it'd only be possible over the phone because they're so busy.
2 .I recorded them using a telephone recording adaptor.
3 .I'd been worried about the quality, but it worked out all right.
4 .I managed at least a 30-minute interview with each subject, sometimes longer.
1 .Did doing it on the phone make it more stressful?
1 .I'd thought it might... it was all quite informal though and in fact they seemed very keen to talk.
2 .And I don't think using the phone meant I got less rich data, rather the opposite in fact.
1 .Interesting. And you were looking at how performers dress for concert performances?
1 .That's right. My research investigated the way players see their role as a musician and how this is linked to the type of clothing they decide to wear.
2 .But that focus didn't emerge immediately.
3 .When I started I was more interested in trying to investigate the impact of what was worn on those listening,
4 .and also whether someone like a violinist might adopt a different style of clothing from, say, someone playing the flute or the trumpet.
1 .It's interesting that the choice of dress is up to the individual, isn't it?
1 .Yes, you'd expect there to be rules about it in orchestras, but that's quite rare.
1 .You only had women performers in your study.
2 .Was that because male musicians are less worried about fashion?
1 .I think a lot of the men are very much influenced by fashion, but in social terms the choices they have are more limited...
2 .they'd really upset audiences if they strayed away from quite narrow boundaries.
1 .Hmm. Now, popular music has quite different expectations.
2 .Did you read Mike Frost's article about the dress of women performers in popular music?
1 .He points out that a lot of female singers and musicians in popular music tend to dress down in performance,
2 .and wear less feminine clothes, like jeans instead of skirts,
3 .and he suggests this is because otherwise they'd just be discounted as trivial.
1 .But you could argue they're just wearing what's practical...
2 .I mean, a pop-music concert is usually a pretty energetic affair.
1 .Yes, he doesn't make thatpoint, but I think you're probably right.
2 .I was interested by the effect of the audience at a musical performance when it came to the choice of dress.
1 .The subjects I interviewed felt this was really important.
2 .It's all to do with what we understand by performance as a public event.
3 .They believed the audience had certain expectations and it was up to them as performers to fulfil these expectations, to show a kind of esteem...
1 ....they weren't afraid of looking as if they'd made an effort to look good.
1 .Mmm. I think in the past the audience would have had those expectations of one another too,
2 .but that's not really the case now, not in the UK anyway.
1 .And I also got interested in what sports scientists are doing too, with regard to clothing.
1 .Musicians are quite vulnerable physically, aren't they, because the movements they carry out are very intensive and repetitive,
2 .so I'd imagine some features of sports clothing could safeguard the players from the potentially dangerous effects of this sort of thing.
1 .Yes, but musicians don't really consider it.
2 .They avoid clothing that obviously restricts their movements, but that's as far as they go.
1 .Anyway, coming back to your own research, do you have any idea where you're going from here?
1 .I was thinking of doing a study using an audience, including..