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第一段

1 .Today, we'll be continuing the series of lectures on memory by focusing on what is called episodic memory

今天,我们要继续关于记忆的系列讲座,侧重于什么是情景记忆,

2 .and what can happen if this is not working properly.

以及如果它没有正常运转的话会出什么问题。

第二段

1 .Episodic memory refers to the memory of an event or 'episode'.

情景记忆指的是对于一个事件或者情景的记忆。

2 .Episodic memories allow us to mentally travel back in time to an event from the past.

情景记忆能够让我们在精神上穿越到过去的事件发生的那个时间。

3 .Episodic memories include various details about these events,

情景记忆包括关于这些事件的不同的细节,

4 .for example, when an event happened and other information such as the location.

比如说,事件是什么时候发生的,以及例如地点这样的信息。

5 .To help understand this concept,

为了更好地理解这个概念,

6 .try to remember the last time you ate dinner at a restaurant.

试着去回忆上次你在餐馆吃晚餐的情境。

7 .The ability to remember where you ate, who you were with and the items you ordered are all features of an episodic memory.

能够记住你在哪里吃、你和谁一起吃以及你们点的东西的能力全都是情景记忆的特点。

第三段

1 .Episodic memory is distinct from another type of memory called semantic memory.

情景记忆和另一种名为语义记忆的记忆完全不同。

2 .This is the type of factual memory that we have in common with everyone else

这是我们每个人都有的一种关于事实的记忆

3 .— that is your general knowledge of the world.

--那是你对于这个世界的总体的知识。

4 .To build upon a previous example,

以前面的例子为基础,

5 .remembering where you parked your car is an example of episodic memory,

记住你在哪里停车是情节记忆,

6 .but your understanding of what a car is and how an engine works are examples of semantic memory.

而你对于什么是车以及引擎是怎样工作的是语义记忆的例子。

7 .Unlike episodic memory, semantic memory isn't dependent on recalling personal experiences.

不同于情景记忆,语义记忆并不依赖于回顾个人的经历。

第四段

1 .Episodic memory can be thought of as a process with several different steps of memory processing:

情景记忆是拥有不同记忆处理步骤的过程:

2 .encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

编码、巩固和提取。

第五段

1 .The initial step is called encoding.

第一步叫做编码。

2 .This involves the process of receiving and registering information,

这包括收集和登记信息的过程,

3 .which is necessary for creating memories of information or events that you experience.

而这对创造关于信息或者是你经历事件的记忆非常必要。

4 .The degree to which you can successfully encode information depends on the level of attention you give to an event while it's actually happening.

你在多大的程度上能够成功编码信息,取决于当一个事件发生的时候你对它的记忆。

5 .Being distracted can make effective encoding very difficult.

如果分神的话可能很难进行有效的编码。

6 .Encoding of episodic memories is also influenced by how you process the event.

情景记忆的编码也受你如何加工处理这个事件的影响。

7 .For example, if you were introduced to someone called Charlie,

比如说,如果有人介绍你认识一个叫做Charlie的人,

8 .you might make the connection that your uncle has the same name.

你可能把他和你也叫Charlie的叔叔联系到一起。

9 .Future recollection of Charlie's name is much easier if you have a strategy to help you encode it.

如果你有编码策略的话,以后再回忆Charlie的名字的时候就更加容易了。

第六段

1 .Memory consolidation, the next step in forming an episodic memory,

情景记忆的下一步是记忆巩固,

2 .is the process by which memories of encoded information are strengthened, stabilised and stored to facilitate later retrieval.

它是将已编码信息增强、稳定和存储,以便将来进行提取的一个过程。

3 .Consolidation is most effective when the information being stored can be linked to an existing network of information.

如果储存的信息能和已经存在的信息网络建立联系,那么巩固就最有效。

4 .Consolidation makes it possible for you to store memories for later retrieval indefinitely.

巩固使存储记忆、并在将来进行信息提取成为可能。

5 .Forming strong memories depends on the frequency with which you try to retrieve them.

建立稳固的记忆取决于你提取信息的频率。

6 .Memories can fade or become harder to retrieve if they aren't used very often.

如果你不经常使用的话,这些回忆就会消失,或者变得很难提取。

第七段

1 .The last step in forming episodic memories is called retrieval, which is the conscious recollection of encoded information.

情境记忆的最后一步叫做提取,也就是编码信息的有意识的回溯。

2 .Retrieving information from episodic memory depends upon semantic, olfactory, auditory and visual factors.

从情景记忆中提取信息取决于语义、嗅觉、听觉和视觉因素。

3 .These help episodic memory retrieval by acting as a prompt.

这些会作为提示,促进情景记忆的提取。

4 .For example, when recalling where you parked your car you may use the colour of a sign close to where you parked.

比如说,当你回忆你在哪里停车的时候,你可以使用靠近你停车点的标志颜色。

5 .You actually have to mentally travel back to the moment you parked.

你要从精神上穿越到你停车的那一刻。

第一段

1 .There are a wide range of neurological diseases and conditions that can affect episodic memory.

有很多神经疾病和状况会影响情景记忆。

2 .These range from Alzheimer's to schizophrenia to autism.

这些疾病包括老年痴呆症、精神分裂症和自闭症。

3 .An impairment of episodic memory can have a profound effect on individuals' lives.

情景记忆受损会对个人的生活带来很大的影响。

4 .For example, the symptoms of schizophrenia can be reasonably well controlled by medication;

例如,精神分裂症的症状可以通过药物合理的控制;

5 .however, patients' episodic memory may still be impaired and so they are often unable to return to university or work.

然而,患者的情景记忆仍可能受损,因此他们往往无法重返大学或工作岗位。

6 .Recent studies have shown that computer-assisted games designed to keep the brain active can help improve their episodic memory.

最近的研究表明,设计用来保持大脑活跃的电脑辅助游戏可以帮助改善他们的情景记忆。

第二段

1 .Episodic memories can help people connect with others,

情景记忆可以帮助人们与他人建立联系,

2 .for instance by sharing intimate details about their past;

例如,分享他们过去的私密细节;

3 .something individuals with autism often have problems with.

自闭症人群经常会在这个方面出现问题。

4 .This may be caused by an absence of a sense of self.

这可能是由于缺乏自我意识造成的。

5 .This is essential for the storage of episodic memory,

这对于情景记忆的存储非常重要,

6 .and has been found to be impaired in children with autism.

而自闭症儿童通常自我感觉受损。

7 .Research has shown that treatments that improve memory may also have a positive impact on children's social development.

研究表明,改善记忆的疗法也可能对儿童的社交发展产生积极影响。

第三段

1 .One study looked at a ...

一项研究着眼于。。。