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第一段

1 .In my presentation,

在我的演讲中,

2 .I'm going to talk about coffee, and its importance both in economic and social terms.

我将讨论咖啡,以及它在经济和社会方面的重要性。

3 .We think it was first drunk in the Arab world,

我们认为它最初被饮用是在阿拉伯国家,

4 .but there's hardly any documentary evidence of it before the 1500s,

但是在16世纪之前几乎没有任何文献证明它存在,

5 .although of course that doesn't mean that people didn't know about it before then.

当然这并不意味着人们在那之前不知道它。

第二段

1 .However, there is evidence that coffee was originally gathered from bushes growing wild in Ethiopia, in the northeast of Africa.

然而,有证据表明,咖啡最初是从非洲东北部的埃塞俄比亚野生的灌木中采集的。

2 .In the early sixteenth century, it was being bought by traders,

在16世纪初,它被商人买下,

3 .and gradually its use as a drink spread throughout the Middle East.

并逐渐成为一种饮料在整个中东地区使用。

4 .It's also known that in 1522, in the Turkish city of Constantinople, which was the centre of the Ottoman Empire,

1522年,在土耳其的君士坦丁堡,也就是奥斯曼帝国的中心,

5 .the court physician approved its use as a medicine.

宫廷医生批准将其用作药物。

第三段

1 .By the mid-1500s, coffee bushes were being cultivated in the Yemen

到16世纪中期,也门种植咖啡树,

2 .and for the next hundred years this region produced most of the coffee drunk in Africa and the Arab world.

在此后几百年里,这个地区生产了非洲和阿拉伯世界饮用的大部分咖啡。

3 .What's particularly interesting about coffee is its effect on social life.

关于咖啡很有趣的一件事,就是它在社会生活中的影响。

4 .It was rarely drunk at home,

很少有人在家里喝咖啡,

5 .but instead people went to coffee houses to drink it.

相反,人们会去咖啡店喝。

6 .These people, usually men, would meet to drink coffee and chat about issues of the day.

这些人,通常是男性,会聚在一起喝咖啡,聊一聊当天的时事。

7 .But at the time, this chance to share ideas and opinions was seen as something that was potentially dangerous,

但是在当时,这种分享想法和观点的机会被看做是有潜在危险的事情,

8 .and in 1623 the ruler of Constantinople demanded the destruction of all the coffee houses in the city,

在1623年,康士坦丁堡的统治者要求毁掉城市所有的咖啡店,

9 .although after his death many new ones opened,

尽管在他死后许多新咖啡店开张了,

10 .and coffee consumption continued.

咖啡消费也在持续。

11 .In the seventeenth century, coffee drinking spread to Europe,

在十七世纪,喝咖啡传播到了欧洲,

12 .and here too coffee shops became places where ordinary people, nearly always men, could meet to exchange ideas.

并且咖啡店也成了普通人的聚集地,几乎是男性,可以见面交流思想的地方。

13 .Because of this, some people said that these places performed a similar function to universities.

正因为如此,有些人说这些地方和大学有类似的功能。

14 .The opportunity they provided for people to meet together outside their own homes and to discuss the topics of the day had an enormous impact on social life,

(咖啡店)它们提供给人们在家以外聚会并讨论当日话题的机会对社会生活产生了巨大的影响,

15 .and many social movements and political developments had their origins in coffee house discussions.

很多社会运动和政治进步都从咖啡屋的讨论中诞生。

第一段

1 .In the late 1600s,

在17世纪末,

2 .the Yemeni monopoly on coffee production broke down

也门咖啡生产的垄断被打破,

3 .and coffee production started to spread around the world, helped by European colonisation.

咖啡生产因为欧洲的殖民开始在全世界蔓延。

4 .Europeans set up coffee plantations in Indonesia and the Caribbean

欧洲人在印度尼西亚和加勒比地区建立了咖啡种植园,

5 .and production of coffee in the colonies skyrocketed.

殖民地的咖啡产量激增。

6 .Different types of coffee were produced in different areas,

不同地区生产了不同种类的咖啡,

7 .and it's interesting that the names given to these different types,

有趣的是,这些不同种类咖啡的名字,

8 .like Mocha or Java coffee,

比如说摩卡咖啡和爪哇咖啡,

9 .were often taken from the port they were shipped to Europe from.

通常是以它们被运去欧洲的那个港口命名的。

10 .But if you look at the labour system in the different colonies,

但是如果你看一下不同殖民的的劳工系统,

11 .there were some significant differences.

就会发现有一些非常重要的区别。

第二段

1 .In Brazil and the various Caribbean colonies,

在巴西和许多加勒比殖民地,

2 .coffee was grown in huge plantations

咖啡生长在巨大的植物上,

3 .and the workers there were almost all slaves.

工人基本上都是奴隶。

4 .But this wasn't the same in all colonies;

但是并不是所有的殖民地都是这样的,

5 .for example in Java, which had been colonised by the Dutch,

比如说在爪哇,那里是荷兰殖民地,

6 .the peasants grew coffee and passed a proportion of this on to the Dutch,

农民生产咖啡,而且把其中的一部分输送到荷兰,

7 .so it was used as a means of taxation.

所以它是用做税收。

8 .But whatever system was used,

但是无论使用了什么系统,

9 .under the European powers of the eighteenth century,

在十八世纪欧洲的权力统治下,

10 .coffee production was very closely linked to colonisation.

咖啡的生产与殖民统治密切相关。

11 .Coffee was grown in ever-increasing quantities to satisfy the growing demand from Europe,

为了满足欧洲日益增长的需求,咖啡的种植数量不断增加,

12 .and it became nearly as important as sugar production,

而且它基本上成为了和糖同样重要的东西,

13 .which was grown under very similar conditions.

而糖的生长条件和咖啡差不多。

14 .However, coffee prices were not yet low enough for people to drink it regularly at home,

然而,咖啡价格还不足以让人们在家里定期饮用,

15 .so most coffee consumption still took place in public coffee houses

因此,大多数咖啡消费仍然发生在公共咖啡屋。

16 .and it still remained something of a luxury item,

它仍然是一种奢侈品,

17 .in Britain, however, a new drink was introduced from China,

但是在英国,一种新的饮品从中国引入,

18 .and started to become popular, gradually taking over from coffee,

然后开始流行起来,逐渐取代了咖啡的地位,

19 .although at first it was so expensive that only the upper classes could afford it.

虽然一开始它太贵了,只有上层阶级才能买得起。

20 .This was tea, and by the late 1700s it was being widely drunk.

这就是茶,到18世纪末,它已得到广泛的饮用。

21 .However, when the USA gained independence from Britain in 1776,

然而,当美国在1776年脱离英国独立时,

22 .they identified this drink with Britain,

他们将这种饮料与英国联系在一起,

23 .and coffee remained the preferred drink in the USA, as it still is today.

咖啡仍然是美国人的首选饮品,直到今天。

第三段

1 .So, by the early nineteenth century, coffee was already being widely produced and consumed.

因此,到了十九世纪初,咖啡已经被广泛生产和消费。

2 .But during this century, production boomed and coffee prices started to fall.

但在本世纪,咖啡产量激增,咖啡价格开始下跌。

3 .This was partly because new types of transportation had been developed which were cheaper and more efficient.

这在一定程度上是因为开发了成本更低、效率更高的新型交通。

4 .So now, working people could afford to buy coffee

所以现在,工薪阶层开始能够买得起咖啡,

5 .- it wasn't just a drink for the middle classes.

它不再只是中产阶级的饮品。

6 .And this was at a time when large parts of Europe were starting to work in industries.

而这正是欧洲很多地区(人们)开始在工厂工作的时候。

7 .And sometimes this meant their work didn't stop when it got dark:

有时这就意味着他们到天黑工作都不会停止,

8 .they might have to continue throughout the night.

他们可能要彻夜工作。

9 .So, the use of coffee as a stimulant became important

所以咖啡作为兴奋剂的使用非常重要

10 .- it wasn't just a drink people drank in the morning, for breakfast.

--它不只是早晨人们作为早餐要喝的东西。

第四段

1 .There were also changes in cultivation ...

在种植方面也有一些变化。。。